Civil society organisations from
The agreement, signed in
The treaty will enter into effect two months after it has been ratified by all the signatories, or if six or more countries, which together represent at least 85 percent of the total GDP of the 12 partners, have ratified it within two years.
"We are seeking a dialogue with like-minded parliamentary groups that defend national interests, and we provide them with information. We want to use the parliaments as hubs, and we also want dialogues with organisations from the United States, Canada and the Asian countries," Carlos Bedoya, a Peruvian activist with the Latin American Network on Debt, Development and Rights (LATINDADD), told IPS.
Civil society groups in
With similar initiatives, "A Better
The activists complain that the intellectual property chapter of the agreement
stipulates a minimum of five years of data protection for clinical trials for
These barriers delay cheaper, generic versions of drugs from entering the market for a longer period of time.
Another aspect criticised by activists is that the member countries must submit disputes over investments to extraterritorial bodies, like the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
The alliances against the TPP also criticise the provisions for Internet service providers to oversee content on the web in order to control the distribution of material that violates copyright laws.
Latin American activists complain as well about the
The TPP emerged from the expansion of an alliance signed in 2006 by
The agreement encompasses areas like customs, textiles, investment, telecommunications, e-commerce, dispute settlement, and labour and environmental issues.
The TPP "has negative effects on health and economic development. It won't benefit our countries. But there will be a lengthy debate, because it contains issues that generate conflict," Carlos Figueroa, a Chilean activist with his country's coalition against the treaty, which encompasses 99 organisations, prominent individuals and five parliamentarians, told IPS.
Among its actions, the "A Better Chile without TPP" organises mass email campaigns to petition the government against the accord, promotes campaigns over the social networks, holds public demonstrations and is lobbying in parliament to block approval of the treaty.
In Mexico, conservative President Enrique Pena Nieto has enough votes in the Senate, which is responsible for ratifying international accords, to approve the treaty, with the votes from the governing Institutional Revolutionary Party, its ally the Green Party, and the opposition right-wing National Action Party.
Despite attempts by governments of the countries in the bloc to promote the positive impacts of the TPP, recent reports call the supposed benefits into question.
"Global Economic Prospects; Potential Macroeconomic Implications of the Trans-Pacific Partnership", a report published in January by the World Bank, projected that the treaty could boost the GDP of its members by 1.1 percent and their trade by 11 percent a year on average by 2030.
In the case of
"Trading Down: Unemployment, Inequality and Other Risks of the
Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement", a study by the Global Development
and Environment Institute at Tufts University, estimates that the TPP would lead
to employment loss in all member countries, with a total loss of 771,000 jobs,
including 448,000 in the United States alone. In
The authors estimate that by 2025, Mexican exports will grow 6.2 percent and
GDP one percent;
For its part, the US International Trade Commission stated May 18, in its report "Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Likely Impact on the US Economy and on Specific Industry Sectors", that by 2032 the TPP would boost the US economy by an average of 0.01 percent a year and employment by 0.07 percent.
Enrique Dussel, coordinator of the China/Mexico
Studies Center at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, questions
"There has been a 20-year learning process to know what works and what
doesn't," he told IPS. "TPP partners without free trade agreements
represent one percent of trade with
NGOs in Latin America are hoping the
"That gives us a little time to fight against ratification. It will be a long battle," said Bedoya.
Dussel anticipated three possible scenarios. "In
two years it goes into effect; there will be no TPP; or in the
(The above article is from the July 1-31, 2016, issue